Usada Balinese Medicine Principles vs Modern Medical Science (Western)
Sickness and death are the forces of Time which no one can resist. Humans are only given the power to take care of their health and try to live longer. Health is the main capital to achieve happiness in physical and spiritual life. 

By observing various global trends, such as healing with energy that is increasingly open and competitive, it is  hoped that treatment with the Balinese usada spirit  can be used as a sociocultural strategy to optimize this potential. 

Therefore, usada development in Bali is carried out  holistically, both in the dimensions of knowledge, values, activities, and products. Scientific research and development of usada, improvement of balian professionalism, enforcement of the code of ethics (sasananing balian), and the quality of traditional Balinese herbal products, are important elements that must be integrated in the development of  Usada Bali.

The importance of maintaining physical health as one of the foundations for realizing life's goals has inspired  maharshis  to develop Ayurveda health sciences . The Ayurveda scriptures   contain comprehensive descriptions of ailments [ vyadhi, rogha ], healing and healing with energy. Ayurveda  teaches the path to a long life [ ayur, ayus ] with a healthy body [ svashtya, svastha ] until old age. Remembering that there is no point in living long but sickly, because it will actually result in prolonged suffering.

Ayurveda  develops a holistic health approach that includes efforts to build physical, mental and mental health. According to  Ayurveda , humans are said to be healthy when all body systems are in a balanced condition so that they are able to work and function properly. The human body system is controlled by the humoral element called  tridosha , namely the fire element [ pitta ], the water element [ kapha ], and the air element [ vatta, vayu ]. When the element  pitta  reacts and the amount increases, the body becomes hot. When the kapha  element  reacts, the body becomes cold and watery. But if the element of  vatta  or  vayu. reacts, then the body becomes hot-cold or dumalada , so that even though the outside temperature of the body is hot, it actually shivers with cold. At first, almost all diseases show all three symptoms.

Ayurveda  medical science  applies two systems of holistic medicine, namely the system of charm ( magico-religious ) and empirical rational  (empirico-rational ). 

This system combines magical religious approaches, psychology, and the use of medicinal herbs sourced from natural ingredients. The Ayurvedic system   has also developed a way of diagnosing disease through three methods of examination [ trividha pariksha ], including observation [ darshana pariksha ], touch or touch [ sparshana pariksha ], and question and answer [ prashna pariksha ]. This diagnostic method develops again in more specific units, such as examination of pulse [ nadi pariksha ], eyeball [ netra pariksha ], tongue [ jihwa pariksha ], and so on, which shows the complexity of the diagnostic pattern applied in Ayurveda .


Usada Bali and the Challenge of Modernity 

Some people  claim that Balinese usada is influenced by  Ayurveda , but it cannot be ignored also the role of indigenous knowledge and other cultural influences.

Usada Bali  as local wisdom must of course be preserved and empowered as an integral effort to improve the health status of the community in line with development goals in the health sector. However, this effort is certainly not an easy matter, especially in the midst of the rapid development of the modern medical system. Moreover, the basic elements that make up the Balinese usada system, such as beliefs, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment methods, are often at odds with the modern medical system. The structure of science has even positioned modern medicine as the 'only' health science that meets scientific prerequisites, namely systematic, methodical, logical, and generally accepted.  

This fundamental difference led to the birth of a general classification in the study of health anthropology which distinguishes the medical system into two, namely modern medical (Western) and traditional medical (non-Western).

Modern medical or biomedical systems developed in the Western world rely on scientific procedures that are measurable and empirically tested, for example through experiments and laboratory tests. In contrast, traditional or ethnomedical medical systems are based on local people's beliefs and practices related to health and disease. 

These two health systems are seen as independent with their respective knowledge systems, concepts, and theories. So it is clear that according to medical anthropology,  Usada Bali  can be classified as traditional Balinese medicine [ethnomedicine] which has a specific system of knowledge, concepts, and theories of medicine.  

Although  usada Bali  has its own knowledge of autonomy, its position in the structure of scientific knowledge remains marginalized so that it is not able to develop as fast as modern medical science. The reason is of course because the structure of science has been constructed in such a way in a modern paradigm or a Western perspective. Therefore, anything that contradicts the modern paradigm is not viewed as scientific knowledge. In the development of modernity around the world, the distinction between modern 'Western' and traditional 'non-Western' has almost always been shaped in oppositional hierarchies: advanced–backward; rational–irrational; scientific–unscientific, and so on which further perpetuates the hegemony of the West over the non-Western.  

When the current of modernization continued to advance, westernization actually declined, and indigenous culture experienced a revival. Modernization gave civilization power to non-Western communities, thus further strengthening their commitment to developing indigenous cultures. The revival of indigenous culture has become a cultural necessity in the midst of the increasingly swift currents of modernization. The revitalization and revitalization of local culture (including religion in it), is currently identified as new forces that balance, and even counterhegemony, the powerful establishment of modern culture.

Despite facing various challenges,  usada Bali  has proven to be able to survive, and even squirm again in the midst of the onslaught of modern culture that is so powerful. The community's still strong belief in the causes of non-medical diseases is one of the reasons the practice of usada Balinese medicine is   still in demand. 

For traditional Balinese people, this etiology provides space and motivation to continue to use the services of traditional Balinese healers [ balians ] because they are believed to be able to heal in a  sakala  and  nishkala manner . In addition, the survival of  usada Bali  also cannot be separated from the balian's ability to adapt to the modern socio-cultural environment.

Usada  has several principles in common with homeopathy (a system of medicine that relies on the workings of medicines derived from natural ingredients, especially plants, animals, and minerals). Homeopathy was developed by many Western scientists, although it contradicts the principles of allopathy (modern medicine). 


Balinese Medicine Taksu Awakening Spirit

The revival of the role of culture has become a global phenomenon that builds a new world order with its multipolarity and multicivilization. Society and nation-state begin to identify themselves based on origin (descendants), religion, language, history, values, customs, and social institutions.

The spread of the spirit of cultural revival is marked by the strengthening of the articulation of cultural identity, as well as the commitment of non-Western communities to revitalize indigenous culture, both as a balancing force and counter-hegemony over modern-Western culture. 

This also takes place in the health sector, which is marked by the dissemination of knowledge and traditional medicine products in the global health discourse arena.

Ayurveda  is one example of the traditional Eastern medicine system whose development is considered the most impressive, even dominating the world's traditional health discourse, and other traditional medicine systems inspire the advancement of modern medical knowledge today.  

Ayurveda  which integrates body-mind-soul therapy has succeeded in developing patterns of health therapy that are widely followed by the world community, even into a lifestyle, such as yoga and pranic energy treatment  .

Healing (Usada) with vital energy ( Prana)  as part of traditional Balinese medicine culture and yoga traditions must certainly take a strategic role in these efforts. Moreover,  Usada with Prana  has abundant medical literature to be studied and developed comprehensively.

Usada Prana revitalization   by adapting more modern ways of course must be done, as long as it does not conflict with the values ​​and norms [of the gym ] that apply in traditional Balinese medicine. This revival spirit has also received support from modern medical circles so that  Usada  and  Prana  can build their autonomy and independence as an important part of the public health solution. 


The Realm of Usada Prana Bali

The ideal conditions to be achieved from the development of  Usada Prana Bali  include the establishment of  usada  with the transformation of vital energy ( Prana ) in the structure of modern society, as well as the professionalism of entrepreneurs and other traditional health workers. This idealism will undoubtedly be realized if every opportunity is optimized in the right realm. The realm in question is the realm of strength that makes all potentials exist and develop optimally. 

By relying on a dialectical adaptation approach, productive areas for the development of  Usada Prana Bali  can be identified, among others: knowledge and skills, practice of medical therapy and ethical rules.

Usada Prana Bali  can be seen as a system of knowledge of reality and non-reality. 

That is, this process entirely involves the knowledge system of reality, also accepts non-reality knowledge systems such as beliefs and supernatural powers that are believed to be true, although they cannot be empirically proven, it is also difficult for reason to accept. 

These two knowledge systems, in Balinese public health beliefs are called  Sakala-Nishkala

The basic principle of  Usada Prana Bali  is the belief in  sakala  and  nishkala , where this belief underlies the entire system of medicine.  

The system of treatment that is applied naturally [ sakala ] is characterized by the use of certain medical techniques, using facilities and infrastructure, such as  herbal Usada Barak  sourced from nature. 

Meanwhile, the supernatural aspect is carried out by asking for God's grace [ nunas ica ] and the means of treatment is carried out by transferring vital life energy ( prana ) without touch and using a means of energized water. 

These characteristics also gave birth to a holistic approach by prioritizing the balance between the  physical, mind, and spirit . This approach is closely related to the belief in the three causes of illness [ dukkha telu ], namely a dhidaiwika dukkha  due to spiritual causes,  adhyatmika dukkha  due to psychological or mental causes, and  adhibhautika dukkha  due to natural or physical causes. 

This means that disease is believed not only to originate from natural factors that attack the human body, but also psychological and spiritual factors so that the approach must also be holistic with the aim of overcoming the three causes. This holistic approach often produces effects that are felt more quickly by patients, especially because of the suggestions received. 

In health anthropology, this effect can be explained based on perceptions of  illness  and  disease  . Certainty about the condition of the disease is a disease dimension  , on the other hand the illness dimension is   more focused on the patient's psyche. 

So the holistic approach used in the  Usada Prana Bali system  actually targets  illness  and  disease  at the same time.

Holistic does not mean mixing modern and traditional medical systems, but both are able to take on their respective roles and functions according to their expertise. 

Holistic health services must be built on the principles of equality, complementarity, and mutual support.

Traditional Balinese medicine has great potential to construct traditional medical discourse that can be accepted by modern science. Considering that  Usada Bali  has a wealth of knowledge about medicine in  usada lontars  which are supported by biological wealth as the basic ingredients of medicine. These biocultural resources are also supported by a culture of traditional medicine that is still developing in society today.

The ability of a healer is closely related to medical expertise that comes from experience ( Taksu ), the power of grace possessed ( Siddhi ) and expertise from literature ( Tattva ). 

This ability gives healers specific powers in carrying out medicinal practices that other medicine does not have.